User Centered Design for Sanitation Technologies

This research brief identifies toilet and sanitation technology preferences, amenities, and attributes influential in promoting adoption of improved sanitation technologies among potential user populations. Drawing on a 1,200 household survey and 60 focus groups conducted in low-income, urban communities of Gujarat, India, this work is focused on insights related to Reinvented Toilet (RT) systems. This work discusses potential barriers to toilet adoption and considerations for sanitation system design.

Key topics

  • User Centered Design
  • Reinvented Toilet
  • Field Testing, Design and Engineering
  • User Adoption



STeP, Duke University, Biomass Controls

Country of focus:

Global, India


June 2018


data, gender, hand washing, maintenance, technology, urinals, water, women

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